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SHA-3 (Secure Hash Algorithm 3), a subset of the cryptographic primitive family Keccak (/ˈkɛtʃæk/, or /kɛtʃɑːk/), is a cryptographic hash function designed by Guido Bertoni, Joan Daemen, Michaël Peeters, and Gilles Van Assche, building upon RadioGatún. SHA-3 is a member of the Secure Hash Algorithm family. The SHA-3 standard was released by NIST on August 5, 2015. The reference implementation source code was dedicated to public domain via CC0 waiver.

Design

SHA-3 uses the sponge construction, in which data is "absorbed" into the sponge, then the result is "squeezed" out. In the absorbing phase, message blocks are XORed into a subset of the state, which is then transformed as a whole. In the "squeeze" phase, output blocks are read from the same subset of the state, alternated with state transformations. The size of the part of the state that is written and read is called the "rate" (often denoted r), and the size of the part that is untouched by input/output is called the "capacity" (often denoted c). The capacity determines the security of the scheme. The maximum security level is half the capacity.

In SHA-3, the state consists of a 5 × 5 array of 64-bit words, 1600 bits total. Keccak is also defined for smaller power-of-2 word sizes w down to 1 bit (25 bits total state). Small state sizes can be used to test cryptanalytic attacks, and intermediate state sizes (from w = 8, 200 bits, to w = 32, 800 bits) can be used in practical, lightweight applications.

The block transformation is a permutation that uses xor, and and not operations, and designed for easy implementation in both software and hardware. The authors claim 12.5 cycles per byte on an Intel Core 2 CPU. However, in hardware implementations, it is notably faster than all other finalists.

Keccak's authors have proposed additional, not-yet-standardized uses for the function, including an authenticated encryption system and a "tree" hashing scheme for faster hashing on certain architectures.

Comparison of SHA functions

In the table below, internal state means the "internal hash sum" after each compression of a data block.

Note that performance will vary not only between algorithms, but also with the specific implementation and hardware used. The OpenSSL tool has a built-in "speed" command that benchmarks the various algorithms on the user's system.

Algorithm and variant Output size
(bits)
Internal state size
(bits)
Block size
(bits)
Max message size
(bits)
Rounds Operations Security bits
(Info)
Example performance
(MiB/s)
First Published
MD5 (as reference) 128 128
(4 × 32)
512 Unlimited 64 And, Xor, Rot, Add (mod 232), Or <64
(collisions found)
335 1992
SHA-0 160 160
(5 × 32)
512 264 − 1 80 And, Xor, Rot, Add (mod 232), Or <80
(collisions found)
- 1993
SHA-1 160 160
(5 × 32)
512 264 − 1 80 <63
(collision found)
192 1995
SHA-2 SHA-224
SHA-256
224
256
256
(8 × 32)
512 264 − 1 64 And, Xor, Rot, Add (mod 232), Or, Shr 112
128
139 2001
SHA-384
SHA-512
SHA-512/224
SHA-512/256
384
512
224
256
512
(8 × 64)
1024 2128 − 1 80 And, Xor, Rot, Add (mod 264), Or, Shr 192
256
112
128
154 2001
SHA-3 SHA3-224
SHA3-256
SHA3-384
SHA3-512
224
256
384
512
1600
(5 × 5 × 64)
1152
1088
832
576
Unlimited 24 And, Xor, Rot, Not 112
128
192
256
- 2015
SHAKE128
SHAKE256
d (arbitrary)
d (arbitrary)
1344
1088
min(d/2, 128)
min(d/2, 256)
- 2015